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Oregon

U.S. state / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Oregon (/ˈɒrɪɡən/ )[7] is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is a part of the Western United States, with the Columbia River delineating much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The 42° north parallel delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. The western boundary is formed by the Pacific Ocean.

Quick facts: Oregon, Country, Before statehood, Admitted t...
Oregon
Nickname: 
The Beaver State
Motto(s): 
Alis volat propriis
(English: She flies with her own wings)
Anthem: Oregon, My Oregon
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodOregon Territory
Admitted to the UnionFebruary 14, 1859; 165 years ago (1859-02-14) (33rd)
CapitalSalem
Largest cityPortland
Largest county or equivalentMultnomah
Largest metro and urban areasPortland
Government
  GovernorTina Kotek (D)
  Secretary of StateLaVonne Griffin-Valade (D)[lower-alpha 1]
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
  Upper houseState Senate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryOregon Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsRon Wyden (D)
Jeff Merkley (D)
U.S. House delegation4 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)
Area
  Total98,381 sq mi (254,806 km2)
  Land95,997 sq mi (248,849 km2)
  Water2,384 sq mi (6,177 km2)  2.4%
  Rank9th
Dimensions
  Length360 mi (580 km)
  Width400 mi (640 km)
Elevation
3,300 ft (1,000 m)
Highest elevation11,249 ft (3,428.8 m)
Lowest elevation
(Pacific Ocean[2])
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2023)
  Total4,233,358[3]
  Rank27th
  Density39.9/sq mi (15.0/km2)
   Rank39th
  Median household income
$71,562[4]
  Income rank
18th
DemonymOregonian
Language
  Official languageDe jure: none[5]
De facto: English
Time zones
most of stateUTC−08:00 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)
majority of Malheur CountyUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
OR
ISO 3166 codeUS-OR
Traditional abbreviationOre.
Latitude42° N to 46°18′ N
Longitude116°28′ W to 124°38′ W
Websitewww.oregon.gov
ASN
  • 1798
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Quick facts: List of state symbols, Motto, Living insignia...
State symbols of Oregon
List of state symbols
Flag_of_Oregon.svg
Seal_of_Oregon.svg
MottoShe Flies With Her Own Wings [6]
Living insignia
BirdWestern meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
ButterflyOregon swallowtail (Papilio machaon oregonia)
CrustaceanDungeness crab
(Metacarcinus magister)
FishChinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
FlowerOregon grape
(Mahonia aquifolium)
GrassBluebunch wheatgrass
(Pseudoroegneria spicata)
InsectOregon swallowtail
(Papilio oregonius)
MammalAmerican beaver
(Castor canadensis)
MushroomPacific golden chanterelle
(Cantharellus formosus)
TreeDouglas-fir
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
DanceSquare dance
FoodPear
(Pyrus)
FossilMetasequoia
GemstoneOregon sunstone
RockThunderegg
ShellOregon hairy triton
(Fusitriton oregonensis)
SoilJory soil
OtherNut: Hazelnut
State route marker
Route marker
State quarter
Oregon quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols
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Oregon has been home to many indigenous nations for thousands of years. The first European traders, explorers, and settlers began exploring what is now Oregon's Pacific coast in the early to mid-16th century. As early as 1564, the Spanish began sending vessels northeast from the Philippines, riding the Kuroshio Current in a sweeping circular route across the northern part of the Pacific. In 1592, Juan de Fuca undertook detailed mapping and studies of ocean currents in the Pacific Northwest, including the Oregon coast as well as the strait now bearing his name. The Lewis and Clark Expedition traversed Oregon in the early 1800s, and the first permanent European settlements in Oregon were established by fur trappers and traders. In 1843, an autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country, and the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state of the U.S. on February 14, 1859.

Today, with 4.2 million people over 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2), Oregon is the ninth largest and 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the third-most populous city in Oregon, with 175,535 residents.[8] Portland, with 652,503, ranks as the 26th among U.S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes neighboring counties in Washington, is the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,512,859. Oregon is also one of the most geographically diverse states in the U.S.,[9] marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres (8.9 km2) of the Malheur National Forest.[10]

Oregon's economy has historically been powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, logging, and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top lumber producer of the contiguous United States, with the lumber industry dominating the state's economy during the 20th century.[11] Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $46.7 billion.[12]

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