Portal:American Civil War

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Battle of Fort Donelson
Battle of Fort Donelson
Battle of Fort Donelson by Kurz and Allison

The American Civil War (18611865) was a sectional rebellion against the United States of America by the Confederate States, formed of eleven southern states' governments which moved to secede from the Union after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. The Union's victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in population, manufacturing and logistics and through a strategic naval blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world's markets.

In many ways, the conflict's central issues – the enslavement of African Americans, the role of constitutional federal government, and the rights of states  – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the Confederate army's surrender at Appomattox on April 9,1865 did little to change many Americans' attitudes toward the potential powers of central government. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war's unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today. (Full article)

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Educating the Disfranchised and Disinherited is a 1999 biography of American General Samuel Chapman Armstrong and his associated normal school for freedmen, Hampton Institute, written by Robert Francis Engs and published by the University of Tennessee Press. The first full biography of its kind, the book portrays Armstrong as a complex politician and administrator in the postbellum period who balanced the needs of opposed parties surrounding the Virginia school: its African American students, Southern white neighbors, and Northern philanthropist funders. Previous works presented Armstrong in a polarized fashion, as either a savior or handicap for freedmen. The book emphasizes Armstrong's upbringing as a missionary in Hawaii in the development of his educational philosophy.

Reviewers complimented the book's balanced presentation of Armstrong, grounded use of the period's thought, and contribution to the historiography of industrial education. They felt the book lacked community and state historical context, as well as recent scholarship on Native Americans at Hampton. (Full article...)

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Mississippi was the second southern state to declare its secession from the United States, doing so on January 9, 1861. It joined with six other southern states to form the Confederacy on February 4, 1861. Mississippi's location along the lengthy Mississippi River made it strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy; dozens of battles were fought in the state as armies repeatedly clashed near key towns and transportation nodes.

Mississippian troops fought in every major theater of the American Civil War, although most were concentrated in the Western Theater. Confederate president Jefferson Davis was a Mississippi politician and operated a large cotton plantation there. Prominent Mississippian generals during the war included William Barksdale, Carnot Posey, Wirt Adams, Earl Van Dorn, Robert Lowry, and Benjamin G. Humphreys. (Full article...)

Portrait c.1870–1880

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (/ˈrʌðərfərd/; October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American military officer and politician from the state of Ohio. A Republican, Hayes served as the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881.

As an attorney in Ohio, Hayes served as Cincinnati's city solicitor from 1858 to 1861. He was a staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings. At the start of the American Civil War, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer. Hayes was wounded five times, most seriously at the Battle of South Mountain in 1862. He earned a reputation for bravery in combat, rising in the ranks to serve as brevet major general. After the war, he earned a reputation in the Republican Party as a prominent member of the "Half-Breed" faction. He served in Congress from 1865 to 1867 and was elected governor of Ohio, serving two consecutive terms from 1868 to 1872 and half of a third two-year term from 1876 to 1877 before his swearing-in as president. (Full article...)

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The West Tennessee Raids
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James Ashby (soldier) Bluffton expedition Benjamin D. Fearing Charles A. Hickman Richard Henry Jackson James B. Speers Charles S. Steedman Battle of Barton's Station Lawrence P. Graham Thomas John Lucas Daniel Henry Rucker James Hughes Stokes Frederick S. Sturmbaugh Davis Tillson Action at Nineveh (currently a redirect) International response to the American Civil War Spain and the American Civil War Savannah Campaign Confederate order of battle Native Americans in the American Civil War (currently disambiguation after deletion) 1st Battalion, Mississippi Mounted Rifles (Union) Battle of Lafayette Requested American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients
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Battle of Boonsborough Battle of Guard Hill Battle of Rice's Station Battle of Simmon's Bluff Battle of Summit Point Charleston Arsenal Edenton Bell Battery First Battle of Dalton Blackshear Prison Edwin Forbes Hiram B. Granbury Henry Thomas Harrison Louis Hébert (colonel) Benjamin G. Humphreys Maynard Carbine Hezekiah G. Spruill Smith carbine Edward C. Walthall Confederate States Secretary of the Navy Confederate States Secretary of the Treasury David Henry Williams Battle of Rome Cross Roads Delaware in the American Civil War Ironclad Board United States Military Railroad Kansas in the American Civil War Rufus Daggett Ebenezer Magoffin Confederate Quartermaster-General's Department First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia Francis Laurens Vinton Henry Maury Other American Civil War battle stubs Other American Civil War stubs
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Battle of Lone Jack Preston Pond, Jr. Melancthon Smith
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1st Regiment New York Mounted Rifles and 7th Regiment New York Volunteer Cavalry
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1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment (Union) 4th Maine Battery 33rd Ohio Infantry 110th New York Volunteer Infantry Battle of Hatcher's Run Camp Dennison Confederate colonies CSS Resolute Dakota War of 1862 Florida in the American Civil War Ethan A. Hitchcock (general) Fort Harker (Alabama) Gettysburg (1993 film) Iowa in the American Civil War Second Battle of Fort Sumter Samuel Benton
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