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United States House of Representatives

Lower house of the United States Congress / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper chamber. Together, they comprise the national bicameral legislature of the United States.[1][2] The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills; those that are also passed by the Senate are sent to the president for signature or veto. The House's exclusive powers include initiating all revenue bills, impeaching federal officers, and electing the president if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College.[3][4]

Quick facts: United States House of Representatives, Type,...
United States House of Representatives
118th United States Congress
Seal of the United States House of Representatives
Seal of the House
Flag of the United States House of Representatives
Flag of the United States House of Representatives
Term limits
New session started
January 3, 2023 (2023-01-03)
Steve Scalise (R)
since January 3, 2023
Hakeem Jeffries (D)
since January 3, 2023
Tom Emmer (R)
since January 3, 2023
Katherine Clark (D)
since January 3, 2023
Seats435 voting members
6 non-voting members
218 for a majority
Political groups
Majority (219)
  •   Republican (219)

Minority (212)

Vacant (4)

  •   Vacant (4)
Length of term
2 years
Plurality voting in 46 states[lower-alpha 1]
Last election
November 8, 2022
Next election
November 5, 2024
RedistrictingState legislatures or redistricting commissions, varies by state
Meeting place
House of Representatives Chamber
United States Capitol
Washington, D.C.
United States of America
Rules of the House of Representatives

The fixed-term for House members is for the two-year term of a Congress, subject to reelection every two-years or intra-term vacancy. The House's composition was established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of representatives who, pursuant to the Uniform Congressional District Act, sit in single member congressional districts allocated to each state on the basis of population as measured by the United States census, with each district having one representative, provided that each state is entitled to at least one representative.[5] Since its inception in 1789, all representatives have been directly elected, although suffrage was initially limited and gradually widened, particularly after the ratification of the 19th Amendment and the Civil Rights Movement. Since 1913, the number of voting representatives has been at 435 pursuant to the Apportionment Act of 1911.[6] The Reapportionment Act of 1929 capped the size of the House at 435. However, the number was temporarily increased in 1959 until 1963 to 437 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted to the Union.[7]

In addition, five non-voting delegates represent the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories of Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa. A non-voting Resident Commissioner, serving a four-year term, represents the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. As of the 2020 census, the largest delegation was California, with 52 representatives. Six states have only one representative: Alaska, Delaware, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.[8]

The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. The rules of the House generally address a two-party system, with a majority party in government, and a minority party in opposition. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof. Other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members.

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