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Andalusia (UK: /ˌændəˈluːsiə, -ziə/, US: /-ʒ(i)ə, -ʃ(i)ə/; Spanish: Andalucía Spanish pronunciation: [andaluˈθi.a]) is the southernmost autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second-largest autonomous community in the country. It is officially recognised as a historical nationality and a national reality. The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville. Its capital city is Seville. The seat of the High Court of Justice of Andalusia is located in the city of Granada.
Andalucía por sí, para España y la Humanidad
("Andalusia by itself, for Spain and humanity")
|Anthem: "La bandera blanca y verde"|
(English: "The White and Green flag")
|Coordinates: 37°23′N 5°59′W|
|Statute of Autonomy||28 February 1980 / 18 February 2007 (current version)|
(and largest city)
|Provinces||Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Jaén, Málaga, Granada, Huelva, Seville|
|• Type||Devolved government in a constitutional monarchy|
|• Body||Council of Andalusia|
|• President||Juan Manuel Moreno (PP-A)|
|• Vice President|
|Legislature||Parliament of Andalusia|
|National representation||Parliament of Spain|
|Congress seats||61 of 350 (17.4%)|
|Senate seats||41 of 265 (15.5%)|
(17.3% of Spain)
|• Total||87,599 km2 (33,822 sq mi)|
|17.3% of Spain|
|• Total (2022)||€170.4 billion|
|• Per capita||€20.018 (17th)|
|• HDI (2019)||0.873 (very high · 14th)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||ES-AN|
|Telephone code(s)||+34 95|
|Official holiday||February 28|
Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha; west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea; east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean; and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Gibraltar shares a 1.2 kilometres (3⁄4 mi) land border with the Andalusian portion of the province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar.
The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central. To the south, the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia [es] lies mostly within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia [es] is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir.
The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus (الأندلس), which in turn may be derived from the Vandals, the Goths or pre-Roman Iberian tribes. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Latin and Arabic. The region's history and culture have been influenced by the Tartessians, Iberians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths, Byzantines, Berbers, Arabs, Jews, Romanis and Castilians. During the Islamic Golden Age, Córdoba surpassed Constantinople to be Europe's biggest city, and became the capital of Al-Andalus and a prominent center of education and learning in the world, producing numerous philosophers and scientists. The Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista.
Andalusia has historically been an agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. Still, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a rich culture and a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin. These include flamenco and, to a lesser extent, bullfighting and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are also prevalent in some other regions of Spain.
Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C (97 °F) in summer high temperatures. These high temperatures, typical of the Guadalquivir valley (and other valleys in southern Iberia) are usually reached between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. (local time), tempered by sea and mountain breezes afterwards. However, during heat waves late evening temperatures can locally stay around 35 °C (95 °F) until close to midnight, and daytime highs of over 40 °C (104 °F) are common. Seville also has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe (19.2 °C; 66.6 °F), closely followed by another Andalucian city, Almería (19.1 °C; 66.4 °F).