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The 1780s (pronounced "seventeen-eighties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1780, and ended on December 31, 1789. A period widely considered as transitional between the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, the 1780s saw the inception of modern philosophy. With the rise on astronomical, technological, and political discoveries and innovations such as Uranus, cast iron on structures, republicanism and hot-air balloons, the 1780s kick-started a rapid global industrialization movement, leaving behind the world's predominantly agrarian customs in the past.

1780s_montage.jpg1783 Laki EruptionU.S. Constitution
From top left, clockwise: The fall of the Bastille propelled the start of the French Revolutionary War, a war that will eventually influence global politics by the birth of democracy in governments, and conceive the idea of republicanism worldwide; The first hydrogen balloons flew successfully this decade by Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert; George Washington becomes president of the United States of America. His ascension into office marked him as America's first president; The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia, formally ending the American Revolutionary War against the United Kingdom; Uranus is discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, further expanding the global scientific consensuses and understanding on the Solar System, recognizing it as the seventh planet from the Sun; The Iron Bridge opens, making it the world's very first bridge made out of cast iron, ushering in the preliminary wave of the Industrial Revolution; The Montgolfier brothers manned the world's first hot-air balloon, which stayed afloat 2 kilometres above ground in its 1783 voyage; Icelandic volcano Laki erupted in 1783, unleashing an 8-month-long environmental destruction and widespread famine across Europe. Up to 33% of Iceland's population and tens of thousands more in Mainland Europe succumbed to the chain of disasters, leading the eruption to be dubbed as "one of the worst" in contemporary history.

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