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Hokkien (/ˈhɒkiɛn/ HOK-ee-en)[11] is a variety of Chinese. It is a Southern Min language native to and originating from the Minnan region, in the southeastern part of Fujian in southeastern mainland China. It is also referred to as Quanzhang (Chinese: 泉漳; pinyin: Quánzhāng), from the first characters of the urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.

Quick facts: Hokkien, Native to, Region, Ethnicity, N...
Min Nan
Bân-lâm-ōe / Hok-kiàn-ōe/ōa / Lán-lâng-ōe / Ho̍h-ló-ōe
Koa-á books, featuring Hokkien written in Chinese characters
Native toChina (Zhangzhou, Quanzhou, Xiamen and its surrounding counties) and Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Klang, Malacca, Johor, Kelantan, Terengganu, and Kuching) and Indonesia (Medan)
RegionEast and Southeast Asia
EthnicityHokkien people
Native speakers
Many of the 27.7 million Minnan speakers in mainland China (2018), 13.5 million in Taiwan (2017), 2.02 million in Malaysia (2000),[lower-alpha 1] 1.5 million in Singapore (2017),[2] 1 million in Philippines (2010), 766,000 in Indonesia (2015), 350,000 in Cambodia (2001), 70,500 in Hong Kong (2016), 17,600 in Thailand (1984), 13,300 in Brunei (2004)[1]
Early forms
Chinese script (see written Hokkien)
Latin script (Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
Official status
Official language in
Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg Taiwan[6][7][8] (also a statutory language for public transport announcements in Taiwan)[9]
Regulated byThe Republic of China Ministry of Education and some NGOs are influential in Taiwan
Language codes
ISO 639-3nan for Southern Min (hbl is proposed[10])
Distribution of Southern Min languages, with Hokkien in dark green
Polities by number of Hokkien speakers
  Significant minority populations
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Quick facts: Hokkien, Traditional Chinese, Simplified...
Traditional Chinese福建話
Simplified Chinese福建话
Hokkien POJHok-kiàn-ōe / Hok-kiàn-ōa
Southern Min / Min Nan
Traditional Chinese閩南話/閩南語
Simplified Chinese闽南话/闽南语
Hokkien POJBân-lâm-ōe / Bân-lâm-ōa / Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-gí / Bân-lâm-gír
Traditional Chinese福佬話
Simplified Chinese福佬话
Hokkien POJHo̍h-ló-ōe / Hô-ló-ōe / Hō-ló-ōe
Traditional Chinese咱人話/咱儂話
Simplified Chinese咱人话/咱侬话
Hokkien POJLán-lâng-ōe / Lán-nâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe

Taiwanese Hokkien is one of the national languages in Taiwan. Hokkien is also widely spoken within the overseas Chinese diaspora in Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Hong Kong, Thailand, Brunei and elsewhere across the world. The mutual intelligibility between Hokkien dialects varies, but they are still held together by ethnolinguistic identity.[12]

In maritime Southeast Asia, Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups, and it remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia. This applied to a lesser extent to mainland Southeast Asia.[13] The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.

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