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Hokkien (// HOK-ee-en) is a variety of Chinese. It is a Southern Min language native to and originating from the Minnan region, in the southeastern part of Fujian in southeastern mainland China. It is also referred to as Quanzhang (Chinese: 泉漳; pinyin: Quánzhāng), from the first characters of the urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
Bân-lâm-ōe / Hok-kiàn-ōe/ōa / Lán-lâng-ōe / Ho̍h-ló-ōe
|Native to||China (Zhangzhou, Quanzhou, Xiamen and its surrounding counties) and Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Klang, Malacca, Johor, Kelantan, Terengganu, and Kuching) and Indonesia (Medan)|
|Region||East and Southeast Asia|
|Many of the 27.7 million Minnan speakers in mainland China (2018), 13.5 million in Taiwan (2017), 2.02 million in Malaysia (2000), 1.5 million in Singapore (2017), 1 million in Philippines (2010), 766,000 in Indonesia (2015), 350,000 in Cambodia (2001), 70,500 in Hong Kong (2016), 17,600 in Thailand (1984), 13,300 in Brunei (2004)|
|Chinese script (see written Hokkien)|
Latin script (Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
Official language in
|Taiwan (also a statutory language for public transport announcements in Taiwan)|
|Regulated by||The Republic of China Ministry of Education and some NGOs are influential in Taiwan|
Distribution of Southern Min languages, with Hokkien in dark green
Polities by number of Hokkien speakers
Significant minority populations
|This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.|
|Hokkien POJ||Hok-kiàn-ōe / Hok-kiàn-ōa|
|Southern Min / Min Nan|
|Hokkien POJ||Bân-lâm-ōe / Bân-lâm-ōa / Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-gí / Bân-lâm-gír|
|Hokkien POJ||Ho̍h-ló-ōe / Hô-ló-ōe / Hō-ló-ōe|
|Hokkien POJ||Lán-lâng-ōe / Lán-nâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe|
Taiwanese Hokkien is one of the national languages in Taiwan. Hokkien is also widely spoken within the overseas Chinese diaspora in Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Hong Kong, Thailand, Brunei and elsewhere across the world. The mutual intelligibility between Hokkien dialects varies, but they are still held together by ethnolinguistic identity.
In maritime Southeast Asia, Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups, and it remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia. This applied to a lesser extent to mainland Southeast Asia. The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
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