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Country in the Caribbean Sea / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jamaica (/əˈmkə/ (listen); Jamaican Patois: Jumieka) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola).[11] Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic); the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 kilometres (134 mi) to the north-west.[11]

Quick facts: JamaicaJumieka (Jamaican Patois), Capita...
Jumieka (Jamaican Patois)
Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Anthem: "Jamaica, Land We Love"
and largest city
17°58′17″N 76°47′35″W
Official languagesEnglish
National languageJamaican Patois (de facto)
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Charles III
Patrick Allen
Andrew Holness
Marisa Dalrymple-Philibert
Tom Tavares-Finson
Bryan Sykes
Mark Golding
House of Representatives
6 August 1962
10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) (160th)
 Water (%)
 2018 estimate
2,726,667[5] (141st)
 2011 census
266[7]/km2 (688.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$32.818 billion[8] (143th)
 Per capita
$11,962[8] (134th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$16.104 billion[8] (119th)
 Per capita
$5,870[8] (101st)
Gini (2016) 35[9]
HDI (2021) 0.734[10]
high · 110st
CurrencyJamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zoneUTC-5
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1-876
+1-658 (Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
ISO 3166 codeJM

Originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people either were killed or died of diseases, after which the Spanish brought large numbers of African slaves to Jamaica as labourers.[11] The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it, renaming it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with a plantation economy dependent on the African slaves and later their descendants. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British began using Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.[11]

With 2.8 million people,[12][13] Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city. The majority of Jamaicans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, with significant European, East Asian (primarily Chinese), Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities.[11] Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, there is a large Jamaican diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The country has a global influence that belies its small size; it was the birthplace of the Rastafari religion, reggae music (and associated genres such as dub, ska and dancehall), and it is internationally prominent in sports, most notably cricket, sprinting and athletics.[14][15][16][17] Jamaica is often considered the world's least populous cultural superpower.[18][19][20]

Jamaica is an upper-middle income country[17] with an economy heavily dependent on tourism; it has an average of 4.3 million tourists a year.[21] Jamaica performs favourably in measurements of press freedom and democratic governance. It ranked first in the Caribbean on the World Happiness Report for 2021.[22] Politically it is a Commonwealth realm, with Charles III as its king.[11] His appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.[11]