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Landlocked country in Central Asia / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Tajikistan,[lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 2] officially the Republic of Tajikistan,[lower-alpha 3] is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Dushanbe is the capital and most populous city. Tajikistan is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. It is separated from Pakistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor. Tajiks form the ethnic majority in the country and their national language is Tajik, a variety of Persian.[14]

Quick facts: Republic of TajikistanҶумҳурии Тоҷикистон&nbs...
Republic of Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
Jumhurii Tojikiston
Республика Таджикистан (Russian)
Respublika Tadzhikistan
Motto: Истиқлол, Озодӣ, Ватан (Tajik)
Istiqlol, Ozodí, Vatan
"Independence, Freedom, Homeland"
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ (Tajik)
Surudi Milli
"National Anthem"
Location of Tajikistan (green)
Location of Tajikistan (green)
and largest city
38°33′N 68°48′E
Official languages
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under an authoritarian dictatorship[7]
Emomali Rahmon
Kokhir Rasulzoda
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
National Assembly
Assembly of Representatives
24 August 1990
31 August 1991
9 September 1991
26 December 1991
142,326[8] km2 (54,952 sq mi) (94th)
2,575 km2 (994 sq mi)
 Water (%)
 1 Jan 2023 estimate
Increase 10,077,600[9] (92th)
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $53.679 billion[10] (119th)
 Per capita
Increase $5,360[10] (148th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $11.816 billion[10] (151st)
 Per capita
Increase $1,180[10] (167th)
Gini (2015)34[11]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.685[12]
medium · 122nd
CurrencySomoni (TJS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TJT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+992
ISO 3166 codeTJ
  1. Russian has the status of an official language through its use as the official interethnic language as cited in the Constitution of Tajikistan.[13]

The territory was previously home to cultures of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, including the city of Sarazm,[15] and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam. The area has been ruled by empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, and Mongol Empire. After being ruled by the Timurid Empire and Khanate of Bukhara, the Timurid Renaissance flourished. The region was later conquered by the Russian Empire and subsequently by the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.[16]

On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan declared itself an independent sovereign nation as the Soviet Union was disintegrating. A civil war was fought after independence, lasting from May 1992 to June 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. The country has been led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, who rules an authoritarian regime. There is corruption and violations of human rights, including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, increasing political repression, and a lack of religious freedom and other civil liberties.[17][18]

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of 4 provinces. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group,[19] who speak the Tajik language — the first official language — making it 1 of the 3 Persian-speaking countries alongside Afghanistan and Iran. Russian is used as the official inter-ethnic language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is nominally adhered to by 96% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan oblast, there is a linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It is a developing country with a transitional economy that is dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO, CSTO and a NATO PfP partner.

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