Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short, summarize this topic like I'm... Ten years old or a College student
Kyrgyzstan or the Kyrgyz Republic is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and the People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
|Anthem: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни (Kyrgyz)|
"National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic"
and largest city
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|27 November 1917|
|5 December 1936|
|31 August 1991|
|26 December 1991|
|11 April 2021|
|199,951 km2 (77,202 sq mi) (85th)|
|7,198 km2 (2,779 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2022 estimate
|27.4/km2 (71.0/sq mi) (109th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2022 estimate|
|$37.79 billion (134th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
|$9.02 billion (151th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 29.0|
|HDI (2021)|| 0.692|
medium · 118th
|Currency||Kyrgyzstani som (c) (KGS)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (KGT)|
|ISO 3166 code||KG|
Kyrgyzstan's history spans a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road along with other commercial routes. Inhabited by a succession of tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under larger domination. Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states. It was first established as the Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate later in the 13th century, Kyrgyzstan was conquered by the Mongols; it regained independence, but was later invaded by Dzungar Khanate. After the fall of Dzhungars, Kyrgyz and Kipchaks were an integral part of Kokand Khanate. In 1876, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire, and in 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was formed to become a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. Following Mikhail Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow and a democratic government was established. Kyrgyzstan attained sovereignty as a nation state after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
After independence, Kyrgyzstan was officially a unitary presidential republic; after the Tulip Revolution it became a unitary parliamentary republic, although it gradually developed an executive president and was governed as a semi-presidential republic before reverting to a presidential system in 2021. Throughout its existence, the country has continued to endure ethnic conflicts, revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. It is a developing country ranked 118th in the Human Development Index, and is the second poorest country in Central Asia. The country's transitional economy is heavily dependent on deposits of gold, coal and uranium.