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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country in Southeast Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Bosnia and Herzegovina[lower-alpha 1] (Serbo-Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina, Босна и Херцеговина;[lower-alpha 2][lower-alpha 3] sometimes known as Bosnia-Herzegovina and informally as Bosnia) is a country in Southeast Europe, situated on the Balkan Peninsula. It borders Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and Croatia to the north and southwest. In the south it has a 20 kilometres (12 miles) long coast on the Adriatic Sea, with the town of Neum being its only access to the sea. Bosnia has a moderate continental climate with hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In the central and eastern regions, the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and in the northeast it is predominantly flat. Herzegovina, the smaller, southern region, has a Mediterranean climate and is mostly mountainous. Sarajevo is the capital and the largest city.

Quick facts: Bosnia and .nobo...
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Državna himna Bosne i Hercegovine
Државна химна Босне и Херцеговине
"National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina"
Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green)in Europe (dark grey)
Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green)

in Europe (dark grey)

and largest city
43°52′N 18°25′E
Official languagesNone
Writing system
Ethnic groups
(2013 census)[3]
  • 51% Islam
  • 3% no religion / others
GovernmentFederal parliamentary[6] directorial republic
Christian Schmidt[lower-alpha 1]
Željko Komšić
Denis Bećirović
Željka Cvijanović
Borjana Krišto
LegislatureParliamentary Assembly
House of Peoples
House of Representatives
Establishment history
9th century
1 December 1918
25 November 1943
29 November 1945
3 March 1992
18 March 1994
14 December 1995
51,229 km2 (19,780 sq mi) (125th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 3,434,000[7] (135th)
 2013 census
69/km2 (178.7/sq mi) (156th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
Increase $71.640 billion[8] (110th)
 Per capita
Increase $20,734[8] (81st)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
Increase $28.738 billion[8] (115th)
 Per capita
Increase $8,317[8] (85th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 32.7[9]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.780[10]
high · 74th
CurrencyConvertible mark (BAM)
Time zoneUTC+01 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Date formatd. m. yyyy. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+387
ISO 3166 codeBA
  1. The high representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton Agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.

The area has been inhabited since at least the Upper Paleolithic, but evidence suggests that during the Neolithic age, permanent human settlements were established, including those that belonged to the Butmir, Kakanj, and Vučedol cultures. After the arrival of the first Indo-Europeans, the area was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. The ancestors of the South Slavic peoples that populate the area today arrived during the 6th through the 9th century. In the 12th century, the Banate of Bosnia was established; by the 14th century, this had evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia. In the mid-15th century, it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained until the late 19th century; the Ottomans brought Islam to the region. From the late 19th century until World War I, the country was annexed into the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1992, following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence. This was followed by the Bosnian War, which lasted until late 1995 and ended with the signing of the Dayton Agreement.

The country is home to three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks are the largest group, Serbs the second-largest, and Croats the third-largest. Minorities include Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins, Ukrainians and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member presidency made up of one member from each of the three major ethnic groups. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized. It comprises two autonomous entities—the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska—and a third unit, the Brčko District, which is governed by its own local government.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a developing country and ranks 74th in the Human Development Index. Its economy is dominated by industry and agriculture, followed by tourism and the service sector. Tourism has increased significantly in recent years.[13][14] The country has a social-security and universal-healthcare system, and primary and secondary level education is free. It is a member of the UN, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Partnership for Peace, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement; it is also a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean, established in July 2008.[15] Bosnia and Herzegovina is an EU candidate country and has also been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010.[16]

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