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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Central and Southeast European socialist state (1945–1992) / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or Socialist Yugoslavia or simply as Yugoslavia, was a country in Central and Southeast Europe. It emerged in 1945, following World War II, and lasted until 1992, with the breakup of Yugoslavia occurring as a consequence of the Yugoslav Wars. Spanning an area of 255,804 square kilometres (98,766 sq mi) in the Balkans, Yugoslavia was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, by Austria and Hungary to the north, by Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and by Albania and Greece to the south. It was a one-party socialist state and federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and had six constituent republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. Within Serbia was the Yugoslav capital city of Belgrade as well as two autonomous Yugoslav provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

Quick facts: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia .mw-p...
Federal People's Republic
of Yugoslavia (1945–1963)
Federativna Narodna
Republika Jugoslavija
(Serbo-Croatian Latin)
  • Федеративна Народна Република
    Југославија
    (Serbo-Croatian Cyrillic)
    Федеративна Народна Република
    Југославија
    (Macedonian)
    Federativna ljudska republika
    Jugoslavija
    (Slovene)

Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)
Socijalistička Federativna
Republika Jugoslavija
(Serbo-Croatian Latin)
  • Социјалистичка Федеративна Република
    Југославија
    (Serbo-Croatian Cyrillic)
    Социјалистичка Федеративна Република
    Југославија
    (Macedonian)
    Socialistična federativna republika
    Jugoslavija
    (Slovene)
1945–1992
Flag of Yugoslavia
Flag
(1946–1992)
Emblem(1963–1992) of Yugoslavia
Emblem
(1963–1992)
Motto: "Brotherhood and unity"
Bratstvo i jedinstvo (Serbo-Croatian Latin)
Anthem: "Hey, Slavs"
Map of Europe in 1989, showing Yugoslaviahighlighted in green
Map of Europe in 1989, showing Yugoslavia
highlighted in green
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
44°49′12″N 20°25′39″E
Official languagesNone at the federal level[a]
Recognised national languages
Official scriptCyrillic   Latin
Ethnic groups
(1981)
Religion
Secular state[2][3]
State atheism (de facto)
Demonym(s)Yugoslav
Yugoslavian
Government1945–1948:
Federal Marxist–Leninist
one-party parliamentary
socialist republic
1948–1971:
Federal Titoist one-party presidential socialist
republic
1971–1990:
Federal Titoist one-party parliamentary socialist
directoral republic
1990–1992:
Federal parliamentary
directoral republic
General Secretary 
 1945–1980 (first)
Josip Broz Tito
 1989–1990 (last)
Milan Pančevski
President 
 1945–1953 (first)
Ivan Ribar
 1991 (last)
Stjepan Mesić
Prime Minister 
 1945–1963 (first)
Josip Broz Tito
 1989–1991 (last)
Ante Marković
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Chamber of Republics
Federal Chamber
Historical eraCold War
 DFY formed
29 November 1943
 SFRY proclaimed
29 November 1945
 Constitution adopted
31 January 1946
c.1948
1 September 1961
7 April 1963
21 February 1974
4 May 1980
 Start of the Yugoslav Wars
27 June 1991
27 April 1992
Area
 Total
255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
 1991 estimate
23,229,846
GDP (PPP)1989 estimate
 Total
$103.04 billion
 Per capita
$6,604
HDI (1990 formula)Decrease 0.913[4]
very high
CurrencyYugoslav dinar (YUN)[d]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+38
Internet TLD.yu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag_of_Yugoslavia_%281943%E2%80%931946%29.svg Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
Free_Territory_Trieste_Flag.svg Free Territory of Trieste
Croatia Flag_of_Croatia.svg
Slovenia Flag_of_Slovenia.svg
Macedonia Flag_of_Macedonia_%281992%E2%80%931995%29.svg
Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_%281992%E2%80%931998%29.svg
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Flag_of_Serbia_and_Montenegro_%281992%E2%80%932006%29.svg
  1. ^ There was no de jure official language at the federal level,[5][6][7] but Serbo-Croatian functioned as the lingua franca of Yugoslavia, being the only language taught throughout the entire country. It was the official language of four federal republics out of six in total: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia.[5][6] Fourteen languages were official in one or more federal units of Yugoslavia, including Slovene, Macedonian, Albanian and Hungarian.[8]
  2. ^ "Hey, Slavs" as a national anthem was not constitutionally adopted until 1988, and named as the "temporary state anthem" until 1977. The song was a de facto anthem of the AVNOJ legislative body since 1943. There have been several attempts at promoting other, more specifically, Yugoslav songs to replace "Hey, Slavs" as the national anthem until the search was abandoned.
  3. ^ Alternatively spelled as Hej, Sloveni / Хеј, Словени in the Serbian variety of Serbo-Croatian.
  4. ^ Code "YUF" used 1945–65, "YUD" used 1966–89, "YUN" used 1990–92.
Close

The SFR Yugoslavia traces its origins to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II to resist Axis occupation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the country's liberation, King Peter II was deposed, the monarchy was ended, and on 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed. Led by Josip Broz Tito, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc at the beginning of the Cold War but pursued a policy of neutrality following the Tito–Stalin split in 1948; it became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a command economy to market-based socialism.

Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation.[9][10] The economic crisis led to rising ethnic nationalism and political dissidence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. With the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, efforts to transition into a confederation failed; the two wealthiest republics, Croatia and Slovenia, seceded and gained some international recognition in 1991. The federation dissolved along the borders of federated republics, hastened by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and formally broke up on 27 April 1992. Two republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or FR Yugoslavia, but this state was not recognized internationally as the sole successor state to SFR Yugoslavia. "Former Yugoslavia" is now commonly used retrospectively.

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