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Kuwait (/kʊˈwt/ ;[7][8] Arabic: الكويت al-Kuwayt, Gulf Arabic pronunciation: [ɪl‿ɪkweːt] or [lɪkweːt]), officially the State of Kuwait (Arabic: دولة الكويت Dawlat al-Kuwayt), is a country in the Middle East. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south.[9] Kuwait also shares maritime borders with Iran. Kuwait has a coastal length of approximately 500 km (311 mi).[10] Most of the country's population reside in the urban agglomeration of the capital and largest city Kuwait City.[11] As of 2022, Kuwait has a population of 4.45 million people of which 1.45 million are Kuwaiti citizens while the remaining 3.00 million are foreign nationals from over 100 countries.

Quick facts: State of Kuwaitدَوْلَةُ الْكُوَيْت (Arab...
State of Kuwait
دَوْلَةُ الْكُوَيْت (Arabic)
Dawlat al-Kuwayt
Anthem: النشيد الوطني
an-Nashīd al-Waṭani
"National Anthem"
Location of Kuwait (green)
Location of Kuwait (green)
and largest city
Kuwait City
Official languagesArabic[1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy[3]
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Ahmad Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah
Ahmed Al-Sadoun
LegislatureNational Assembly
 Independence from the Bani Khalid Emirate
23 January 1899
29 July 1913
 End of treaties with the United Kingdom
19 June 1961
14 May 1963
11 November 1962
17,818 km2 (6,880 sq mi) (152nd)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
4,294,621[4] (137th)
200.2/km2 (518.5/sq mi) (62nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase$248.113 billion[5] (65th)
 Per capita
Increase $51,528[5] (30th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Increase$183.576 billion[5] (59th)
 Per capita
Increase$38,123[5] (26th)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.831[6]
very high · 50th
CurrencyKuwaiti dinar
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+965
ISO 3166 codeKW
  1. Nominal succession within the House of Sabah.
  2. Emirate

Historically, most of present-day Kuwait was part of ancient Mesopotamia.[12][13][14] Before the discovery of oil, Kuwait was a strategic trade port between Mesopotamia, Persia and India. Oil reserves were discovered in commercial quantities in 1938. In 1946, crude oil was exported for the first time.[15][16] From 1946 to 1982, the country underwent large-scale modernization, largely based on income from oil production. In the 1980s, Kuwait experienced a period of geopolitical instability and an economic crisis following the stock market crash. In 1990, after oil production disputes with neighbouring Iraq, Kuwait was invaded, and later annexed into one of Iraq's governorates by Iraq under Saddam Hussein.[17] The Iraqi occupation of Kuwait came to an end on February 26, 1991, after military intervention by a military coalition led by the United States and various other countries.

As an Arab state in the Persian Gulf, Kuwait is an emirate. The emir is the head of state and the Al Sabah is the ruling family which dominates the country's political system. Kuwait's official state religion is Islam, specifically the Maliki school of Sunni Islam. Kuwait is a developing country with a high-income economy, backed by the world's sixth largest oil reserves. Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of theatre, radio, music, and television soap opera, is regionally influential and exported to neighboring GCC states.[18] In 2009, Kuwait had the highest Human Development Index in the Arab world.[19][20] Kuwait is a founding member of the GCC and is also a member of the UN, AL, OPEC and the OIC. In July 2022, Kuwait named the emir's son as the country's new prime minister to replace caretaker premier Sheikh Sabah al-Khalid, who faced a combative parliament as head of cabinet in a feud hindering fiscal reform.